What Is Insulin And What Does It Do
Many people know that insulin is the hormone that is important to maintain the blood sugar level at the right level. Insulin, a compound made up of 51 amino acids, is produced in the beta cells of the pancreas and is stimulated by blood glucose concentration to produce and secrete into the blood. The main role of insulin is to maintain the blood glucose concentration at the optimal value by making the absorption of glucose from the blood to the muscles, fat tissue and liver and by inhibiting the production of glucose from the liver.
What happens if the cells in the target organs for insulin’s action refuse to respond to insulin? Even if you have the relevant key to open the door, if for some reason the key does not open the lock, you cannot enter the room. A similar phenomenon occurs in the tissues of the body and glucose cannot enter the cells because the cells do not respond to insulin. As a result, the cells are damaged and the concentration of glucose in the blood increases. An increase in blood glucose causes an increase in the production of insulin and a high amount of insulin in the blood begins to be constantly present. In this way, cells are not sensitive to insulin and the chemical signaling system related to insulin action is not functioning properly, which causes this condition. There are many factors that contribute to insulin resistance. Consuming sugar and starch in excess of the body’s energy needs, gaining weight, becoming obese, being used to an inactive lifestyle, high cortisol concentration in the body due to various reasons, and the presence of hereditary genetics have been revealed to be the leading causes.
Due to insulin resistance, the efficiency and effectiveness of the respiratory cycle associated with mitochondria in cells decreases and the tendency to produce reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative damage to tissues increases. In order for the nervous system to continuously provide the energy it needs to function properly, the system must have good insulin sensitivity. Parallel to insulin resistance in the body, insulin resistance also occurs in the brain and is a cause of neuropathy along with amnesia. Failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance leads to persistently high blood glucose levels and results in type-II diabetes. The other diabetes condition, type I diabetes, is caused by decreased production of insulin due to the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. Drugs that increase insulin sensitivity and drugs that increase insulin production are used to treat type II diabetes. By forcing the pancreas to continuously produce high levels of insulin, after a certain point the beta cells are likely to become dysfunctional and insulin injections have to be started.
Insulin resistance in the body is a powerful factor that accelerates the aging process. If aging is to be controlled, it is essential to pay close attention to preventing the development of insulin resistance or reducing the insulin resistance that has developed. In order to maintain the insulin concentration in the blood at a low level, the consumption of carbohydrates beyond the body’s needs should be avoided. Foods containing sugar and flour should be strictly controlled. If you are overweight or obese, you should immediately take steps to control it. It is useful to fast for a few days a week to give a break to the body’s metabolism. Making time for at least five days a week of technically correct exercise per week is imperative to controlling insulin resistance. It is important to get at least six hours of continuous night sleep. Stress management, emotion management, engaging in hobbies, and meditation are helpful in controlling blood cortisol levels. For those with a genetic predisposition to diabetes and obesity, paying special attention to controlling the development of insulin resistance is extremely beneficial for future well-being in life.