There are several data sources for collecting data. Such as people, organizations, texts, events, etc. (İlhan, n.d.). These data can be categorized as primary data and secondary data. Information obtained firsthand by the researcher on the variables of interest for the specific purpose of the study is called primary data (Sekaran, 2003). Secondary data can be gathered from journals, articles, e-resources, etc. Here, the researcher was going for structured interviews because there were specific questions; he/she can change his/her questions according to the questions and their willingness.
Then, considering data collection methods, there are several data collection methods such as surveys, questionnaires, observation, and interviews. If the research is quantitative, you have to follow a questionnaire. But if researchers conduct qualitative research interviews will be suitable. When considering interviews, there are three types of interviews such as structured, semi-structured, and unstructured (İlhan, n.d.).
Structured interviews used predetermined questionnaires for gathering data. The interviewer has a list of predetermined questions to be asked of the respondents personally, through the telephone (Sekaran, 2003). This method can be beneficial because it allows them to focus on the specific phenomenon or encounter that they are investigating. It makes conducting interviews more efficient and collects the necessary information, so there should be little need for you to conduct follow-up interviews for missed or neglected questions.
In unstructured interviews the researcher does not enter the interview setting with predetermined questions. These unstructured interviews are informal. Semi-structured interviews the researcher will have a list of themes and questions to be covered (Saunders et al., n.d.). With the ideas of the scholars’, semi-structured interviews were the best for quantitative research because it allows us to set a structure of questions that researchers are going to ask participants. Also, there was a possibility to go beyond the questions that the researcher prepared previously if the researcher immersed a problem or doubt. When considering structured interviews, researchers do not have a chance to go beyond the predetermined questions. On the other hand, considering unstructured interviews, there is no guidance to conduct interviews because there are not any predetermined questions. That is the reason to select structured interviews for this study. Data were recorded with the permission of the particular participant. When observation serves a specified research aim, is methodically
planned and documented, and is exposed to checks and controls on trustworthiness, it becomes a scientific instrument and the researcher’s technique of data collecting. The information is sought via the observation technique through the investigator’s direct observation rather than asking for a response (Research Methodology, n.d.).
When it comes to this research, structured interviews are the best. Because the researcher can ask predetermined questions regarding what is needed to gain more clarifications. When a researcher is conducting structured interviews effectiveness and efficiency of data collection increase and the consistency of the data collection also increases. The researcher treats all respondents equally while he is conducting structured interviews. Further, the researcher also employed observation to determine their habits. Participants from different years were chosen to represent working and non-working people and multiple ethnicities. A smartphone was used to collect data from interviews. The most significant characteristic is that, due to health issues, the interviews were conducted over the phone.